Article 5121

Title of the article

Epidemiological survey of birds and their mites in Voronezh 


Sergey P. Gaponov, Doctor of biological sciences, professor, professor of the sub-department of zoology and parasitology, Voronezh State University (1 Universitetskaya square, Voronezh, Russia), E-mail:
Russom Teklay Tewelde, Postgraduate student, Voronezh State University (1 Universitetskaya square, Voronezh, Russia), E-mail: 

Index UDK





Parasitic mites associated with the birds play an epidemiological role as reservoirs and vectors of different pathogens. It is especially important in the urban areas. Ecological interrelations between birds and their acaroid parasites were studied. In Voronezh in 2017–2020, 1547 bird nests and 5017 birds of 27 species: Apodiformes: Apus apus; Columbiformes: Columba livia; Passeriformes: Riparia riparia, Delichon urbicum, Hirundo rustica, Passer domesticus, P. montanus, Fringillacoelebs, Luscinia luscina, Ficedula hypoleuca, Erithacus rubecula, Muscicapa striata, Turdus philomelos, Turdus pilaris, Sturnus vulgaris, Pica pica, Corvus monedula, C. cornix, C. frugilegus, Motacilla alba, Сurruca (Sylvia) communis, Sylvia borin, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus, Remizpendulinus, Sittaeuropaea, Phylloscopussibilatrix were examined. 19 456 parasitic mites and mites belonging to the orders Mesostigmata (17 806 mites, 90,92 %) Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae (1212 mites, 6,19 %), Ixodida (438 ticks, 2,24 %) of 14 species were collected. 13 species of mesostigmatid (81,25 % of species), one species of velvet (6,25 %) mites, and two species of ixodid mites (12,50 %) were identified. According to the type of ecological connections with host birds, the parasitic mites are nest-burrow parasites, except Ixodes ricinus. 7 species of determined parasites (43,75 %) are obligate hematophages: Ixodes ricinus, I. lividus, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, Dermanyssus gallinae, D. hirundinis, D. passerinus and larval stages of Eutrombicula sp., while 9 mesostigmatic mite species (56,25 %) are optional hematophages of birds and small mammals. In spring and early summer an exchange of parasites between migratory, nomadic and sedentary birds take place. The highest species diversity of the mites as well as their highest number were registered from April to July. In the autumn and winter only three mite species continue their reproduction on the birds’ bodies. Active exchanging of the parasites between the birds is noticed during feeding, grooming, reproductive activity and nestling. Some mites are spreading by active moving or phoretic on the loose flies. Ecological connections between small mammals and birds through their common parasitic mites serve as an important links in pathogens circulation in the urban ecosystems of Voronezh. 

Key words

Voronezh, birds, gamasid mites, hard mites, velvet mites, epidemiology 


 Download PDF


1. Sonin M.D., Beer S.A., Roytman V.A. Parasitic systems in conditions of anthropopression (problems of parasitic pollution). Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 1997;5:453–457. (In Russ.)
2. Sonin M.D., Beer S.A., Roytman V.A. [et al.]. Regularity of the formation of parasitic pollution of the environment in urbanized ecosystems. Meditsinskaya parazitologiya i parazitarnye bolezni = Medical parasitology and parasitic diseases. 2000:7–11. (In Russ.)
3. Krasnoshchekov G.P. Ecological adaptations of parasites. Materialy IV Vserossiyskoy shkoly po teoreticheskoy i morskoy parazitologii = Proceedings of the 4th All-Russian school on theoretical and marine parasitology. Kaliningrad: Atlant NIRO, 2007: 118–121. (In Russ.)
4. Andreychev A.V. Rodents and insectivorous mammals of the urbanized territories of Mordovia. Nauchnye vedomosti Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser.: Estestvennye nauki = Bulletin of Belgorod State University. Series: Natural sciences. 2015;21(219):71–77. (In Russ.)
5. Rusakov A.V., Starikov V.P. Population of small mammals and typification of undeveloped territories of Kurgan. Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy akademii nauk = Proceedings of Samara Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy. 2013;15(3):1142–1145. (In Russ.)
6. Gaponov S.P. Epidemiological survey of mammals and hard ticks in urban and periurban areas of Voronezh in 2001–2016. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser.: Khimiya, Biologiya, Farmatsiya = Bulletin of Voronezh State University. Series: Chemistry. Biology. Pharmacy. 2017;2:48–58.
7. Uspenskiy I.V. Blood-sucking ticks (Acarina: Ixodidoidea) as an essential component of the urban environment. Zoologicheskiy zhurnal = Zoological journal. 2017;96(8): 871–898. (In Russ.)
8. Petukhov V.A., Starikov V.P., Vershinin E.A. [et al.]. The structure of communities of small mammals and their ectoparasites of Surgut. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy = Ecology of urbanized areas. 2018;3:19–25. (In Russ.)
9. Gaponov S.P. Tick borne zoonotic diseases in urban ecosystems of Voronezh region. Sovremennye problemy zoologii pozvonochnykh i parazitologii: materialy IV Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. «Chteniya pamyati professora I. I. Barabash-Nikiforova» = Modern problems of vertebrate zoology and parasitology: proceedings of the 4th International scientific conference “Readings commemorating professor I.I. Barabash-Nikiforov”. Voronezh, 2012:63–74.
10. Gembitskiy A.C. Obitateli gnezd sinantropnykh ptits na territorii Belorussii i ikh rol' v rasprostranenii vozbuditeley zabolevaniy cheloveka i zhivotnykh: avtoref. dis. kand. biol. nauk = Inhabitants of nests of synanthropic birds on the territory of Belarus and their role in the spread of causative agents of human and animal diseases: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of biological sciences. Minsk, 1966:19.
11. Nikiforov L.P. Biocenotic connections of birds in natural foci of arboviruses. Transkontinental'nye svyazi pereletnykh ptits i ikh rol' v rasprostronenii arbovirusov = Transcontinental connections of migratory birds and their role in the spread of arboviruses. Novosibirsk, 1972:277–279. (In Russ.)
12. L'vov D.K., Il'ichev V.D. Migratsii ptits i perenos vozbuditeley infektsiy = Bird migration and transmission of infectious agents. Moscow: Nauka, 1979:270. (In Russ.)
13. Korenberg E.I., Gorelova N.B., Kovalevskiy Yu.V. The main features of the natural focality of ixodic tick-borne borreliosis in Russia. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 2002; 36(3):177–191. (In Russ.)
14. Moskvitina N.S., Romanenko V.N., Ternovoy V.A. [et al.]. Detection of West Nile virus and its genotyping in ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Tomsk and its suburbs. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 2008;42(3):210–225. (In Russ.)
15. Cohen E.B., Aukland L.D., Marra P.P., Hamer S.A. Avian migrants facilitate invasions of Neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2015;81(24):8366–8378.
16. Newman E.A., Eisen L., Eisen R.J. [et al.]. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes in Wild Birds in Northwest California: Associations with Ecological Factors, Bird Behavior and Tick Infestation. PLOS ONE. 2015;10:e0118146. Available at:
17. Ogden N.H., Barker I.K., Francis C.M., Heagy A., Lindsay L.R., Hobson K.A. How far north are migrant birds transporting the tick Ixodes scapularis in Canada? Insights from stable hydrogen isotope analysis of feathers. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2015;6(6): 715–720.
18. Matyukhin A.V. Ektoparazity i simbioticheskie mikroartropody ptits v usloviyakh megapolisa: avtoref. dis. kand. biol. nauk = Ectoparasites and symbiotic microarthropodia of birds in a metropolis: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of biological sciences. Moscow, 2004:27. (In Russ.)
19. Gaponov S.P., Solodovnikova O.G., Fedoruk S.A. Ixodid ticks (Ixodidae) in the urbanized territories of the Voronezh region in 2003–2009. Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta imeni N. I. Lobachevskogo = Bulletin of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. 2011;2-2:45–51. (In Russ.)
20. Gaponov S.P., Stekol'nikov A.A. Features of the dynamics of the small mammals’ number and their ectoparasites in the urbanization gradient in the Voronezh region. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy = Ecology of urbanized areas. 2013;3:86–92. (In Russ.)
21. Gaponov S.P., Stekol'nikov A.A., Prostakov N.I., Fedoruk S.A. Dynamics of the number of ixodid and gamasid ticks under anthropopressive conditions. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser.: Khimiya. Biologiya. Farmatsiya = Bulletin of Voronezh State University. Series: Chemistry. Biology. Pharmacy 2013;1: 92–97. (In Russ.)
22. Gaponov S.P. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. Voronezh: Izd. dom VGU, 2011:711. (In Russ.)
23. Gaponov S.P., Khitsova L.N., Solodovnikova O.G. Metody parazitologicheskikh issledovaniy = Parasitological research methods. Voronezh: Izd. dom VGU, 2009:180. (In Russ.)
24. Bregetova N.G. Gamazovye kleshchi (Gamasoidea) = Gamasid mites (Gamasoidea). Moscow; Leningrad: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1956:250. (In Russ.)
25. Belousova N.M. Functional structure of microcenoses of nests of synanthropic birds in the conditions of South Primorye. Nauchnye vedomosti. Ser.: Estestvennye nauki = Scientific bulletin. Series: Natural sciences. 2011;5(110):48–55. (In Russ.)
26. Fend’a P. Mites (Mesostigmata) inhabiting bird nests in Slovakia (Western Carpathians). Trends in Acarology. 2010:199–205.
27. Ambros M., Krištofík J., Šustek Z. The mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) in the birds’ nests in Slovakia. Biologia. 1992;47:369–381.
28. Fend’a P., Pinowsky J. The mites (Acarina: Mesostigmata) in the nests of sparrows (Passer domesticus and Passer montanus) in suburban villages of Warsaw (Poland). International Studies on sparrows. 1997:37–47.
29. Krumpál M., Cyprich D., Fend’a P., Pinowski J. Invertebrate fauna in nests of the house sparrow Passer domesticus and the tree sparrow Passer montanus in central Poland. International Studies on sparrows. 2001;27–28:35–58.
30. Davidova R.D., Vasilev V.M. Gamasid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) in the nest of three passerine species from Kamcha Mountain (Northeastern Bulgaria). Sci. Parasitol. 2011;12(3):203–209.
31. Smirnova Yu.G. Fauna i ekologiya paraziticheskikh chlenistonogikh u ptits Ivanovskoy oblasti: avtoref. dis. kand. biol. nauk = Fauna and ecology of parasitic arthropods in birds of the Ivanovo region: author’s abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of biological sciences. Ivanovo, 2002:25. (In Russ.)
32. Malunov S.N., Egorov S.V. Fauna and biotopic distribution of ticks of the Ixodidae family in agrocenoses of the Eastern Upper Volga region. Rossiyskiy parazitologicheskiy zhurnal = Russian parasitologic journal. 2008;1:1–4. (In Russ.)
33. Denisov A.A. Fauna and biotopic distribution of ticks of the Ixodidae family on the territory of the Lower Volga region. Teoriya i praktika parazitarnykh bolezney = Theory and practice of parasitic diseases. 2009;10:154–156. (In Russ.)
34. Borisova V.I. Results of the study of the ecology of nest-burrowing parasites of birds of the TASSR. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 1972;6(5):457–464. (In Russ.)
35. Eropov V.I., Lipin S.I., Sonin V.D. Gamasid mites of birds and their nests in Baical region. II akarologicheskoe soveshchanie: tezisy dokl. Ch. 1 = The 2nd acarological meeting: abstracts. Part 1. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1970:204–206. (In Russ.)
36. Goncharova A.A., Buyakova T.G., Isakova T.T., Volkova G.N. Biocenotic relationships of some species of gamasid mites from bird nests of Transbaikalia. Fauna i ekologiya nazemnykh chlenistonogikh Sibiri = Fauna and ecology of terrestrial arthropods of Siberia. Irkutsk: Izd-vo IGU, 1981:133,134. (In Russ.)
37. Bogdanov I.I., Yakimenko V.V. Mites (Acari) and fleas (Siphonapter) nests of birds of small mammals on lake floats in natural foci of Omsk hemorrhagic fever. Prirodnoochagovye bolezni cheloveka = Natural focal human diseases. Omsk, 1987:103–109. (In Russ.)
38. Davydova M.S., Nikol'skiy V.V. Gamazovye kleshchi Zapadnoy Sibiri = Gamasid mites of Western Siberia. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986:123. (In Russ.)
39. Marshalova N.A. To the fauna of gamasid ticks of passerine birds (otr. Passeriformes) in South Karelia. Parazitologicheskie issledovaniya v Karel'skoy ASSR i Murmanskoy oblasti = Parasitological research in the Karelian ASSR and the Murmansk region. Petrozavodsk: Karel'skoe knizhnoe izd-vo, 1976:21–26. (In Russ.)
40. Nikulina N.A. Epizootological and epidemiological significance of gamasid mites (sem. Haemogamasidae, Oudms., 1926, r. Haemogamasus Berl., 1889) of small mammals on the territory of the Baikal region. Byulleten' VSNTs SO RAMN = Bulletin of the Eastern Siberian Scientific Center of the Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. 2006;2(48):111–114. (In Russ.)
41. Tagil'tsev A.A. On the significance of the life patterns of gamazoid mites for assessing the participation of these mites in the circulation of the causative agent of Q fever in natural foci of the steppe type. Problemy meditsinskoy parazitologii i profilaktiki infektsiy = Problems of medical parasitology and infection prevention. Moscow, 1964: 650–662. (In Russ.)
42. Tagil'tsev A.A., Tarasevich L.N., Bogdanov I.I. Possible formation ways of arboviruses’ adaptation associated with ptitis in the temperate zone. Vtoraya Vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya po migratsiyam ptits. Ch. 2 = The Second All-Union Conference on Bird Migration. Part 2. Alma-Ata, 1978:278–280. (In Russ.)
43. Tarasevich L.N., Tagil'tsev A.A. On the relationship of bird parasites with arboviruses in the south of the Omsk region. Transkontinental'nye svyazi ptits i ikh rol' v rasprostranenii arbovirusov: materialy V simp. po izucheniyu roli pereletnykh ptits v rasprostranenii arbovirusov = Transcontinental communications of birds and their role in the spread of arboviruses: proceedings of the 5th symposium on the study of the role of migratory birds in the spread of arboviruses. Novosibirsk, 1972:358–361. (In Russ.)
44. Trufanova E.I., Popova M.S. Parasitic arthropods in the nests of the common starling in the Usmansky pine forest. Sovremennye problemy zoologii i parazitologii: materialy VIII Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. «Chteniya pamyati professora I. I. Barabash-Nikiforova» = Modern problems of zoology and parasitology: proceedings of the 8th International scientific conference “Readings commemorating professor I.I. Barabash-Nikiforov”. Voronezh: Izd. dom VGU, 2016:218–225. (In Russ.)
45. Teuel'de R.T., Gaponov S.P. Parasitic insects in nests Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. montanus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Passeriformes) in Voronezh. Polevoy zhurnal biologa = Biologist field journal. 2020a;2:48–60. (In Russ.)
46. Teuel'de R.T., Gaponov S.P. Parasitic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata, Trombi-diformes, Acariformes) in birds’ nests in Voronezh. Sovremennye problemy obshchey i prikladnoy parazitologii: sb. nauch. st. po materialam XIV nauch.-prakt. konf. pamyati professora V. A. Romashova (Voronezhskiy gosudarstvennyy zapovednik, 8–9 oktyabrya 2020 g.) = Modern problems of general and applied parasitology: proceedings of the 14th scientific and practical conference commemorating professor V.A. Romashov (Voronezh State Preserve, October 8–9, 2020). Voronezh: Voronezhskiy GAU, 2020b:48–56. (In Russ.)
47. Gaponov S.P., Teuel'de R.T. Mites are nests’ perasites Passer domesticus L. i Passer montanus L. (Aves: Passeriformes) in Voronezh. Aktual'nye voprosy ekologii i parazitologii: materialy onlayn-konf. s mezhdunar. uchastiem pamyati d.b.n., professora L. N. Khitsovoy = Topical issues of ecology and parasitology: proceedings of online-conference with international participation commemorating doctor of biological sciences, professor L.N. Khitsovoy. Voronezh, 2020:24–29. (In Russ.)
48. Leonovich S.A. Searching behavior of ixodid ticks (Ixodidae) in ontogenesis. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 2015;49(4):273–288. (In Russ.)
49. Borisova V.I. Gamasid mites in the nests of birds of the Volzhsko-Kama nature reserve. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 1977;XI(2). (In Russ.)
50. Zemskaya A.A. On parasitic gamasid mites (Gamasoid) on birds. Zoologicheskiy zhurnal = Zoological journal. 1969;48(4):512–518. (In Russ.)
51. Zuevskiy A.P. To the role of gamasid mites in the epizootic of tularemia. Parazitologiya = Parasitology. 1976;10(6):531–535. (In Russ.)
52. Cafiero M.A., Camarda A., Galante D. [et al.]. Outbreaks of red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) dermatitis in city-dwellers: an emerging urban epizoonosis. Hypothesis in Clinical Medicine. 2013:413–424.
53. Raele D.A., Galante D., Pugliese N. [et al.]. Mesostigmata, Acari, related to urban outbreaks of dermatitis in Italy. New Microbes and New Infections. 2018;23:103–109.
54. Rosen S., Yeruham I., Braverman Y. Dermatitis in humans associated with the mites Pyemotes tritici, Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Androlaelaps casalis in Israel. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2002;16(4):442–444.
55. Boseret G., Losson B., Mainil J.G. [et al.]. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives. Vet. Res. 2013;20(44):36.
56. Valiente Moro C., De Luna C.J., Tod A. [et al.]. The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae: a potential vector of pathogenic agents. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2009;48:93–104.
57. Circella E., Pugliese N., Todisco G. [et al.]. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2011;55:329–338.
58. Melter O., Arvand M., Votypka J., Hulinska D. Bartonella Quintana transmission from mite to family with high socio-economic status. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2012;18:163–165. 


Дата создания: 08.04.2021 15:26
Дата обновления: 09.04.2021 10:07